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Insights into the Tax Systems of Scandinavian Countries

Scandinavian countries are well-known for their broad social safety net and their public funding of services such as universal health care, higher education, parental leave, and child and elderly care. High levels of public spending naturally require high levels of taxation. In 2019, Denmark’s tax-to-GDP ratio was at 46.3 percent, Norway’s at 39.9 percent, and Sweden’s at […]

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Sources of Government Revenue in the OECD

Table of Contents Key Findings In 2019, OECD countries raised on average one-third of their tax revenue through consumption taxes such as the Value-added Tax (VAT), making consumption taxes the most important revenue source. Social insurance taxes and individual income taxes were the second and third most important sources of tax revenue in the OECD, […]

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Carbon Taxes in Europe

In recent years, several countries have taken measures to reduce carbon emissions using environmental regulations, emissions trading systems (ETS), and carbon taxes. In 1990, Finland was the world’s first country to introduce a carbon tax. Since then, 16 European countries have followed, implementing carbon taxes that range from less than €1 per metric ton of […]

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Sweden’s 2021 Budget: Permanent Income Tax Cuts

As a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, the economies of many countries have been significantly damaged. In Sweden, GDP is expected to fall by 4.6 percent in 2020, despite the country’s lack of business and school lockdowns. In August, Sweden’s unemployment rate was 9 percent. Unsurprisingly, Sweden’s economic recovery is a priority in the upcoming […]

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Looking Back on 30 Years of Carbon Taxes in Sweden

Key Findings Implemented in 1991, Sweden’s carbon tax was one of the first in the world, second only to Finland’s carbon tax, which was implemented a year earlier. Sweden levies the highest carbon tax rate in the world, at SEK 1,190 (US $126) per metric ton of CO2. The tax is primarily levied on fossil […]