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Tax Subsidies for R&D Expenditures in Europe

Many countries incentivize business investment in research and development (R&D), intending to foster innovation. A common approach is to provide direct government funding for R&D activity. However, a significant number of jurisdictions also offer R&D tax incentives. These generally take two forms, namely patent boxes—taxing income derived from intellectual property at a rate below the statutory […]

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Poland Borrows an Idea from Estonia’s Tax System, but Misses the Point

Poland and Estonia have dramatically different tax systems. While Estonia has earned the top rank in our International Tax Competitiveness Index for seven years running, Poland consistently ranks toward the bottom of the Index. This year Poland ranks 34th out of 36 countries. While consumption and property tax policies are key contributors to this low […]

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Patent Box Regimes in Europe

Patent box regimes (also referred to as intellectual property, or IP, regimes) provide lower effective tax rates on income derived from IP. Most commonly, eligible types of IP are patents and software copyrights. Depending on the patent box regime, income derived from IP can include royalties, licensing fees, gains on the sale of IP, sales […]