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Territoriality of Tax Systems in Europe

Under a territorial tax system, multinational businesses primarily pay taxes to the countries in which they are physically located and earn their income. This means that territorial tax regimes do not generally tax the income companies earn in foreign countries. A worldwide tax system, on the other hand—such as the system previously employed by the […]

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Net Operating Loss Carryforward and Carryback Provisions in Europe

Loss carryover provisions allow businesses to either deduct current year losses against future profits (carryforwards) or current year losses against past profits (carrybacks). Many companies have investment projects with different risk profiles and operate in industries that fluctuate greatly with the business cycle. Carryover provisions help businesses “smooth” their risk and income, making the tax […]

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Tax Relief for Families in Europe

Most countries provide tax relief to families with children—typically through targeted tax breaks that lower income taxes. While all European OECD countries provide tax relief for families, its extent varies substantially across countries. One way to measure targeted tax relief for families is to compare the tax burdens on labor of a family with one […]

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Dividend Tax Rates in Europe

Many countries’ personal income tax systems tax various sources of individual income—including investment income such as dividends and capital gains. Today’s map shows how dividend income is taxed across European OECD countries. A dividend is a payment made to a corporation’s shareholders from corporate after-tax profits. In most countries, such dividend payments are subject to […]

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Top Personal Income Tax Rates in Europe

Most countries’ personal income taxes have a progressive structure, meaning that the tax rate paid by individuals increases as they earn higher wages. The highest tax rate individuals pay differs significantly across European OECD countries—as shown in today’s map. The top statutory personal income tax rate applies to the share of income that falls into […]

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What European OECD Countries Are Doing about Digital Services Taxes

Over the last few years, concerns have been raised that the existing international tax system does not properly capture the digitalization of the economy. Under current international tax rules, multinationals generally pay corporate income tax where production occurs rather than where consumers or, specifically for the digital sector, users are located. However, some argue that […]

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Bank Taxes in Europe

The 2007-2008 financial crisis triggered a global debate on whether, and if so how, taxation can be used as an instrument to stabilize the financial sector and to generate revenue to partially cover the costs associated with the recent and potential future crises. Three approaches were mainly discussed, namely financial stability contributions (levied on financial […]

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Reliance on Property Taxes in Europe

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Reliance on Consumption Taxes in Europe

Today’s map highlights the extent to which European OECD countries rely on consumption tax revenue. Consumption taxes are on goods and services. All European countries levy consumption taxes in the form of Value-added Taxes (VAT), excise taxes, and other taxes on goods and services. In 2019 (most recent data available), consumption taxes were the largest […]

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Reliance on Social Insurance Tax Revenue in Europe

A recent report on tax revenue sources shows that social insurance taxes—also referred to as social security contributions or payroll taxes—are an important revenue source for European governments. Social insurance taxes, as opposed to individual income taxes, are usually levied at a flat rate. The revenue is generally used to fund specific social programs, such […]