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Comparing Europe’s Tax Systems: Individual Taxes

Our recently published 2020 International Tax Competitiveness Index (ITCI) measures and compares how well OECD countries promote sustainable economic growth and investment through competitive and neutral tax systems. This week, we examine how European OECD countries rank on individual taxes, continuing our series on the ITCI’s component rankings. The ITCI’s individual tax component scores OECD […]

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Comparing Europe’s Tax Systems: Corporate Taxes

Last week, we released the International Tax Competitiveness Index 2020, a study that measures and compares the competitiveness and neutrality of all 36 OECD countries’ tax systems. In the coming weeks, we will illustrate how European OECD countries rank in each of the five components of the Index: corporate income taxes, individual taxes, consumption taxes, […]

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International Tax Competitiveness Index 2020

Launch Interactive Tool Note: Each year we review and improve the methodology of the Index. For that reason, prior editions are not comparable to the results in this 2020 edition. All data and methodological notes are accessible in our GitHub repository. Introduction The structure of a country’s tax code is an important determinant of its economic […]

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Carbon Taxes in Europe

In recent years, several countries have taken measures to reduce carbon emissions using environmental regulations, emissions trading systems (ETS), and carbon taxes. In 1990, Finland was the world’s first country to introduce a carbon tax. Since then, 16 European countries have followed, implementing carbon taxes that range from less than €1 per metric ton of […]

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Recent Changes in Dividend Tax Rates in Europe

With the exception of Estonia and Latvia, all European countries covered in today’s map levy a dividend tax, with the top rates varying significantly. Greece levies a tax of only 5 percent on dividend income, while Ireland taxes dividends at 51 percent. Over the last three years, eight European OECD countries have made changes to their dividend […]

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Recent Changes in Top Personal Income Tax Rates in Europe

In 2018, revenue from personal income taxes made up 23.9 percent of total tax revenue across OECD countries. Countries tax labor income in various ways through payroll taxes, personal income taxes, and, in some cases, surtaxes. From 2017 to 2020, ten European countries in the OECD changed their top personal income tax rates. Of these ten countries, six cut their […]

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New European Commission Report: VAT Gap

In 2017, Value-Added Tax (VAT) accounted for 62.3 percent of consumption tax revenues in the OECD on average, making it an important source of government revenue. The European Commission (EC) recently published the latest version of their annual report on the “VAT Gap” in 2018 for the 28 Member States of the European Union at […]

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Recent Changes in Statutory Corporate Income Tax Rates in Europe

Over the last two decades, corporate income tax rates have declined around the world. Today’s map shows the most recent changes in corporate tax rates in European OECD countries, comparing how combined statutory corporate income tax rates have changed between 2017 and 2020. The average tax rate of all European countries covered has declined from […]

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Tax Treaty Network of European Countries

In an increasingly globalized world, many individuals and corporations work and do business abroad. As a result, jurisdictions need to define how income earned in foreign countries is taxed. Otherwise, income could be taxed in more than one country, resulting in double taxation. To avoid this, countries negotiate double tax agreements (DTAs). Tax treaties usually […]

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Thin-Cap Rules in Europe

High-tax countries create an incentive for companies to finance investments with debt because interest payments are tax-deductible, which is usually not the case for equity costs. This encourages global businesses to lend money internally from entities in low-tax countries to entities in high-tax countries. Tax savings in high-tax countries can exceed the increased tax paid […]