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Carbon Taxes in Europe

In recent years, several countries have taken measures to reduce carbon emissions using environmental regulations, emissions trading systems (ETS), and carbon taxes. In 1990, Finland was the world’s first country to introduce a carbon tax. Since then, 16 European countries have followed, implementing carbon taxes that range from less than €1 per metric ton of […]

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A Carbon Tax to Make the TCJA’s Individual Provisions Permanent

Key Findings At the end of 2025, most individual income tax provisions of the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (TCJA) will expire, increasing taxes on individuals. Making these provisions permanent is estimated to reduce federal tax revenues by $176 billion annually (in 2021 dollars). While making these provisions permanent would increase the long-run size of […]

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Looking Back on 30 Years of Carbon Taxes in Sweden

Key Findings Implemented in 1991, Sweden’s carbon tax was one of the first in the world, second only to Finland’s carbon tax, which was implemented a year earlier. Sweden levies the highest carbon tax rate in the world, at SEK 1,190 (US $126) per metric ton of CO2. The tax is primarily levied on fossil […]

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New Research on the Impact of Energy Taxes and the EU’s Cap-and-Trade System

New research on the impact of energy taxes and the EU’s cap-and-trade system has been released. Both articles were published by the American Economic Journal in 2020. In “Energy Cost Pass-Through in US Manufacturing: Estimates and Implications for Carbon Taxes,” the authors study the welfare effects of changes in energy input costs—such as energy tax […]